Posts by: Momentum

ASP 30 Steel Equivalent

   |   By  |  0 Comments

asp 30 steel equivalent

ASP 30 is a type of high speed steel also known as ASP 2030 or PM30. Both are ASP 30 steel equivalents. Explore the physical properties, thermal treatments, and common applications of this dependable high speed steel.

ASP 2030 Steel Physical Properties

Compared to other alloys, ASP 30 steel offers competitive levels of red hardness and ease of grinding. The wear resistance and toughness are balanced and higher than some alternatives. Consider the physical and chemical properties as you shop for steel solutions:

  • Modulus of elasticity: 34 x 10⁶ psi
  • Density: 0.287 lb/in³
  • Carbon: 1.25
  • Chromium: 4.2
  • Tungsten: 6.4
  • Molybdenum: 5
  • Vanadium: 3.1
  • Cobalt: 8.5

This cobalt high-alloyed powder metallurgy steel offers excellent features for machining or cold work. The PM process also aids in stability during typical heat treatment options. It’s also known as SKH 56, HS 6-5-3-8 and M36. Depending on the thermal process you choose, you can alter the hardness, machinability or other features of this steel.

Thermal Treatments

ASP 2030 steel

Work with ASP 2030 steel in various thermal treatments to harness the natural properties of this durable steel. Consider the following temperature ranges and treatment steps for optimal performance in your specific tool manufacturing application:

  • Preheating: It’s recommended to preheat this steel between 840 and 930 degrees Fahrenheit, or between 1560 and 1650 degrees Fahrenheit, depending on your process.
  • Austenitizing: High-heat austenitizing requires a rapid increase from the preheat level. The best way to achieve this is to heat a second furnace to the recommended level, usually between 1920 and 2160 degrees Fahrenheit, depending on the final hardness required. Avoid oxidation and decarburization during the hardening process.
  • Quenching: Quench the steel until it reaches a temperature of about 120 degrees Fahrenheit before tempering it. This can be achieved with a vacuum furnace between 2 and 5 bar, as well as a martempering bath at approximately 1004 degrees Fahrenheit. Try to keep the cooling speed to around 20 degrees Fahrenheit per second for high toughness.
  • Tempering: Cold work needs to be tempered at 1040 degrees Fahrenheit. Perform this process at full temperature three times for one hour. Once the process is completed, allow the tool to cool to room temperature.
  • Annealing: After the hot working process is complete, but before the tool is re-hardended, heat it to 1600 degrees Fahrenheit at a rate not exceeding 400 degrees Fahrenheit. After holding the temperature for one hour per inch of material thickness, cool it to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit at a speed less than 30 degrees Fahrenheit per hour. Allow the tool to finish cooling to the ambient temperature.

Product Shape Options

Turn to Griggs Steel to receive ASP 2030 steel in a wide range of product sizes, shapes and order amounts. Choose coils, flat bars, hot-rolled sheets or round bars for your specific manufacturing and heat treatment process. Regardless of the shape, this high speed steel is an excellent material for machining, polishing, welding and hot forming.

Common Applications of PM30 Steel

Consider your manufacturing application as you compare ASP 2030 steel with other types of steel from Griggs. This particular product is commonly used in the following applications:

  • Milling cutters
  • Blanking
  • Drills, saws and other cutting tools
  • Broaches
  • Taps and dies
  • Cold work
  • Hops

After these parts and tools undergo manufacturing and thermal treatment steps, they’re ready for long-lasting performance in a range of applications. Create a long-lasting cutting edge, wear-resistant die or durable broach for your facility or your client order.

ASP 2023 Equivalent

   |   By  |  0 Comments

ASP 2030 steel

High speed steel comes in many grades and types. ASP 2023 also known as S790, PM 23 and M3-2, offer reliable results for a range of industrial applications. Explore the properties, chemical treatment and applications of this high alloyed powder metallurgical steel available from Griggs Steel.

Physical Properties

PM 23 steel, is an ASP 2023 equivalent which has excellent wear resistance and high levels of compressive strength. This makes it suitable for a number of cold work applications and cutting tools. Choose PM 23 steel for superior grindability and machinability.
ASP 2023 performs well in tool manufacturing thanks to its wear resistance, red hardness, toughness and ease of grinding. Here are the physical properties and chemical composition of this steel:

  • Density: 0.287 lb/in³
  • Modulus of elasticity: 33 x 10⁶ psi
  • Carbon: 1.28
  • Tungsten: 6.4
  • Chromium: 4
  • Molybdenum: 5
  • Vanadium: 3.1

The result of these physical and chemical properties is excellent steel for high-performance cutting tools. The chemical properties protect it from dimensional instability after a heat treatment, so it’s a competitive candidate for popular thermal treatments as well as in cold rolling production techniques.

Thermal Treatments

There are five thermal treatments that ASP 2023 equivalent alloy can undergo. Each one offers different benefits depending on your application:

  • Preheating: This step uses 840 to 930 and 1560 to 1650 degrees Fahrenheit to prepare the steel for a thermal treatment. Follow this preheating step before austenitizing or performing other applicable heat treatments.
  • Austenitizing: After the preheating step, rapidly increase the temperature by transferring the steel to another furnace. Choose a temperature between 1920 and 2160 degrees Fahrenheit for this second furnace. Avoid oxidation and decarburization for a successful hardening process.
  • Quenching: Start with a vacuum furnace with sufficient overpressure of high speed gas, typically between 2 and 5 bar. A fluidized bed or martempering bath of approximately 1020 degrees Fahrenheit is used, then the product should be cooled until it reaches 120 degrees Fahrenheit. Finish with immediate tempering.
  • Tempering: Tempering ASP 2023 steel for cold work applications is carried 1040 degrees Fahrenheit. From there, three full-temperature tempering rounds are achieved for one hour. The product must be cooled to room temperature between rounds. The result is less than 1% austenite content.
  • Annealing: Perform this process before re-hardening but after hot working. Start by heating for less than 400 degrees Fahrenheit per hour until the alloy reaches 1600 degrees Fahrenheit. Maintain this temperature for 1 hour per inch of product thickness, for at least 2 hours. Don’t exceed 30 degrees Fahrenheit per hour heat reduction during the cooling phase until it reaches 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. Finally, cool to ambient temperature in the air or furnace.

Available Product Shapes

ASP 2023 can be delivered in a range of product shapes. Choose between coils, flat bars, round bars, cold rolled strips and hot rolled sheets for your manufacturing process. Discuss the optimal product shape for your tool or cold work application with us to determine the proper solution.

Applications of ASP 2023

Work with PM 23 steel to enjoy a polishable material for machining, hot forming or electrical discharge machining. The chemical properties and physical characteristics of this alloy make it particularly popular for creating the following components:

  • Stamping, machining and precision cutting tools
  • Rotary knives
  • Circular saw segments
  • Cold extrusion punches
  • Gear shaper cutters
  • Plastic molds with high wear resistance

Contact Griggs Steel today for more information. With over 65 years experience in the industry we are the number one suppliers of high speed tool steel in the USA.

Physical Properties of High Speed Steel

   |   By  |  0 Comments

physical properties of high speed steel
physical properties of high speed steel

High speed steel is a class of tool steel alloys used for high-speed applications such as cutting and drilling. Understanding the physical properties of high speed steel will help you to find the right choice for your application.

Molybdenum HSS Steel Alloys

The molybdenum series of high speed steel grades is considered the default option for many tool steel applications. Five common M-series grades include M2, M3, M4, M7 and M42.

  • M2: This is the most popular choice among tool steels. It provides a balance of wear resistance, toughness, red hardness and ease of grinding. There is more on M2 below.
  • M3: This grade has higher carbon and vanadium levels compared to M2 (though lower than M4). The result is improved wear resistance and red hardness but decreased toughness. Ease of grinding is substantially decreased compared to M2 (by about half).
  • M4: With even higher carbon and vanadium levels than M3, the characteristic changes of M4 are even more extreme. Wear resistance and red hardness are increased compared to M3 while toughness and ease of grinding are decreased.
  • M7: With increased molybdenum levels compared to M2, this grade can offer highly balanced characteristics. It has highly balanced toughness, red hardness and ease of grinding as well as elevated wear resistance. All four characteristics are about average for the M series.
  • M42: This HSS steel grade has elevated cobalt levels. It is characterized by high wear resistance and red hardness but very low toughness and ease of grinding. It is popular for metal manufacturing.

Properties of Molybdenum High Speed Steel – AISI M2

This grade of molybdenum HSS steel deserves special mention because it is by far the most popular. Previously, that honor went to the T1 grade, a type of tungsten steel. However, M2 has superior bending strength, toughness and thermo-plasticity. This is no small improvement. Each characteristic is increased by at least 50% over T1. M2 offers an excellent balance of cost and performance. It is used for mills, rolling racks, knives, drills, taps, dies and many other applications.

Tungsten High Speed Steel

The T series and M series high speed steels are the two major types containing varying amounts of tungsten. PM T15 has higher tungsten levels than other grades at 12.25%. This inclusion places PM T15 among the best of our high speed steel alloys for wear resistance and red hardness. Its toughness is comparable to M3, but the ease of grinding is relatively low. See tungsten high speed steel for more information and details regarding this type of steel.

Powder Metallurgy HSS Grades

Powder metallurgy uses metal powders to create steel alloys, helping to improve many characteristics. Some powder metallurgy grades include PM M4, PM M48, PM 23, PM 30 and PM 60.

  • PM M4: Powder metallurgy improves cutting tool life compared to conventionally wrought grades. This gives PM M4 very high wear resistance and toughness. However, the red hardness and ease of grinding are below average.
  • PM M48: This grade has increased tungsten and an addition of 8.5% cobalt compared to PM M4. This improves its red hardness significantly as well as ease of grinding. However, toughness is reduced by more than a third.
  • PM 23: This grade is a powder metallurgy steel corresponding to AISI M3:2. It has relatively balanced characteristics, all of which are superior to M2. In particular, toughness and ease of grinding are high.
  • PM 30: This grade is often considered an alternative to M42. It has similar wear resistance and red hardness but less sacrifice of toughness and ease of grinding.
  • PM 60: This is a high-alloyed grade including high levels of carbon, cobalt, molybdenum, tungsten and vanadium. It has the highest wear resistance and red hardness of any grade but low toughness and ease of grinding.

High-Vanadium HSS

PM A11 is a powder-metallurgy, high-vanadium steel alloy. It is characterized by excellent wear resistance (higher than all grades other than PM 60) and good toughness. However, it has extremely low red hardness and poor ease of grinding.

High Speed Steel vs. Tungsten Steel

   |   By  |  0 Comments

cpm m4 steel for sale

If you are searching for a highly heat- and wear-resistant steel, you may find yourself evaluating both high speed steel and tungsten steel. These two categories of steel alloys share some characteristics. You may have even heard of a type of steel referred to as tungsten high speed steel.
Understanding the specifics of these categories and their advantages and disadvantages will help you to find the right option for your application.

How High Speed Steel and Tungsten Steel Differ

HSS steel is a group of tool steel alloys that are characterized by high hardness, wear-resistance and heat-resistance. Typically, between 10% to 25% of HSS is made up of alloying elements including molybdenum, chromium, vanadium, cobalt and tungsten. There are numerous grades of HSS, each with different combinations and amounts of alloying elements.
The key advantage of HSS is that it can hold up to the significant heat and friction in high-speed tool applications.
Tungsten steel refers to any steel alloy that includes tungsten as an alloying element. This provides the steel with enhanced hardness, strength, wear resistance, toughness, heat resistance and corrosion resistance. In particular, the hardness and wear resistance continue even at temperatures exceeding 500 degrees Celsius.

Tungsten High Speed Steel

As the above information implies, there is some cross over between high speed steel and tungsten steel. Several HSS alloys including a significant amount of tungsten, conferring the impressive qualities of tungsten into the tool steel. These are sometimes referred to as tungsten high speed steel.
In some cases, high speed steel refers specifically to the molybdenum series of HSS. These alloys have between 3.75% and 10.5% molybdenum and 10% or less tungsten. Tungsten high speed steels have at least 12.38% tungsten and 1% or less molybdenum (T1 has no molybdenum). However, there are also some tungsten steels that are not classified as HSS.

How To Select the Right Steel for Your Needs

In general, the molybdenum series of HSS has better abrasion resistance than tungsten steel. When heat-treated, they are less likely to distort. In most cases, they are also less expensive than tungsten series alloys.
Conversely, tungsten high speed steel tends to have the best hot hardness of comparable alloys. Additionally, tungsten is very valuable for offering secondary hardness and resistance to tempering.
Typically, molybdenum HSS is used for cold work with high abrasion and very high speeds. Conversely, tungsten HSS is used for applications that will be at high heat. It is also sometimes used for cutting tool applications in which long service life is a high priority. However, T-series steels tend to be more expensive. So, a molybdenum HSS may be preferable in many cases.
Ultimately, the characteristics of the grade are often more important than those of the series. Therefore, it is important to examine the details of any alloy grade you are considering.

High Speed and Tungsten Steel Grades

There are a variety of high speed steel grades including molybdenum and tungsten series alloys. The M series options include M2, M3, M4, M7 and M42. The first three are tool steels with varying levels of carbon and vanadium. They offer well-balanced wear resistance and grindability. M7 and M42 are ideal for construction equipment and metal manufacturing, respectively.
Additionally, depending on your application, you may also want to consider PM M4 or PM M48. These are powdered metallurgy versions of molybdenum series alloys. They offer better tool life length compared to non-PM grades.
For tungsten high speed steel, we offer PM T15. This offers high wear resistance, impact toughness and bend strength.

Tungsten HSS Steel For Sale

  • M2 – Rounds, flats, block, plate, hardened bar, tool bits
  • M3 – Rounds, flats, block
  • M4 – Rounds
  • M7 – Rounds
  • M42 – Rounds, flats, block, plate, hardened bar, tool bits
  • PM M4 – Rounds, powdered metal sheets, block, plate
  • PM M48 – Rounds, powdered metal sheets, block, plate, tool bits
  • PM T15 – Rounds, powdered metal sheets, flats, block, plate, tool bits

Advantages of High Speed Steel

   |   By  |  0 Comments

High speed steel is a popular material often used to create cutting tools, particularly drill bits. Whether you’re creating tools for the end user or redesigning your manufacturing tooling, here are some common advantages of high speed steel.

High Speed Steel Hardness

ASP 2030 steel

This feature alters the performance of your steel in a number of ways. A hard metal bar, sheet or plate requires durable tools to precisely process. However, once your high speed steel component has an edge, its inherent hardness extends the cutting lifetime. This is particularly true in high heat situations.
Another benefit of steel with increased hardness is its regrindability. Once your drill bit or other cutting tool has lost its edge, it’s easier to grind and sharpen than other steel alloys. This process ensures a long life for your tooling.

High-Speed Performance

Drill through thick materials with confidence thanks to the high-speed performance of this steel. Cutting through materials at high speeds is one of the most important advantages of high speed steel. You can enjoy this benefit due to the alloy’s unique combination of hardness, wear resistance and high-temperature capabilities. High speed steel can offer speeds up to seven times that of traditional alloys.

Wear Resistance

A tough blade is likely to hold its edge longer. Even in high-heat or high-pressure situations, you can expect your high speed steel components to hold their edge and outperform other alloys. Some manufacturers choose to coat high speed steel to add another layer of wear resistance.

High-Temperature Capabilities

One of the final advantages of high speed steel is its high-temperature capabilities. While every alloy has slightly different heat levels, you can expect many high speed alloys to reach operating temperatures of 650 degrees.

Types of High Speed Steel

There are many types of high speed tool steel to choose from. Compare these common types and work with our team at Griggs Steel to find the optimal alloy for your particular application.

Cobalt

The most common example of cobalt high speed steel is M42. This particular type of cobalt steel includes an additional 8% cobalt. This increases the heat resistance and red hardness. These advantages of high speed steel with cobalt reduce cycle times for manufacturing tools.
Cobalt tool steel is commonly used in end mills, broaches, reamers, drills and other manufacturing processes. This type is relatively affordable, particularly when you factor in the reduced downtime due to shorter cycles.

Tungsten

When iron-based high speed steel is combined with chromium, carbon, molybdenum, vanadium and/or tungsten, it creates a dynamic tool steel option. Choose either T type or M type tungsten high speed steel for improved wear resistance, hardness and temperature capabilities. Tungsten T type alloys include between 12 and 20% tungsten, while M type includes as little as 1.25% tungsten.

CPM REX M4

Compare CPM REX M4 with other alloys to enjoy some of the greatest advantages of high speed steel. This steel is commonly used in manufacturing situations to create taps, punches, header tooling and form tools. It includes multiple elements, including tungsten, vanadium, molybdenum, manganese, chromium and silicon. M4 high speed steel is commonly modified with a heat treatment service. Use austenitizing, gas quenching or annealing to modify the hardness, edge retention and other critical features for your manufacturing application.

What is CPM Steel?

   |   By  |  0 Comments

What is CPM Steel? CPM stands for Crucible Particle Metallurgy and is a method of producing higher alloyed grades of superior quality than could be accomplished through conventional steelmaking. CPM steel is useful for high-alloy tool steel and high speed steel.

What Are the Advantages of CPM Steel?

ASP 2023 equivalent

Steel produced with particle metallurgy offers advantages over ingot-cast tool steels for both the tool manufacturer and the end user. With sulfur enhancement, it offers improved machinability to the tool manufacturer. The grindability is excellent, and it provides a stable substrate for coatings.
Upon heat treatment, the size change is predictable and its response is consistent. Wire EDM cutting is efficient with CPM steel. Particle metallurgy steel products also offer benefits to the end user. Upon resharpening, it has good grindability. The performance of the tools is consistent.
The wear resistance and the toughness are both improved, with less chipping. Products made with particle metallurgy steel offer the end user with higher grades of alloys than they would be able to obtain otherwise.

Common Types of CPM Steel

Some common types of this steel include cpm m4, cpm t15 tool steel, cpm 10v (also known as a11 steel or aisi a11), cpm rex 45 (also known as PM30 steel), and more.

How Is CPM Steel Made?

Steel is an alloy made from two or more different metals. These are melted together so that they form a homogenous molten bath. During a manufacturing process that involves particle metallurgy, we then pour the molten metal through a small nozzle. The liquid then streams into a spray of tiny droplets due to a burst of a high-pressure gas through the nozzle.
The droplets are roughly spherical in shape and collect as powder particles in the bottom of the atomization tower as they cool and solidify quickly. In a sense, each of the powder particles is its own micro-ingot with fine carbide size and uniform composition.
The powder that results from this process is then loaded into sealed and evacuated steel containers after screening. The containers holding the particles are then subjected to temperatures similar to those used for forging and extremely high pressure. The process is referred to as hot isostatic pressing, and it produces a microstructure that is fine grained and homogenous.
There is a uniform distribution of carbides in high-carbon grades. If improved toughness is desired, this type of steel can then undergo standard mill processing. It can also be used in the as-HIP condition.

How Is This Different From Conventional Steelmaking?

cpm m4 steel for sale

The first few steps in conventional steelmaking are similar to those in the particle metallurgy process. The former process, however, involves pouring the homogenous molten metal bath made of alloying elements into individual ingot molds after transferring from the furnace into a ladle. Once poured into the ingot molds, the metal is allowed to cool down slowly.
The individual ingredients segregate during the process of solidifying in the ingot molds. Due to the segregation, the as-cast microstructure is no longer uniform. Carbides can form a coarse intergranular network as they precipitate from the melt in high-carbon tool steels and high-speed steels.
Refining the microstructure by breaking up the carbide network requires subsequent mill processing. However, not even this is sufficient to fully eliminate the effects of segregation on the metal. When it comes to tool fabrication and performance, alloy segregation can have a detrimental effect.

How Does CPM Steel Eliminate Segregation?

Because the powder particles cool and solidify so quickly, there is no segregation. Grain growth is prevented due to the uniform distribution of fine carbides. Therefore, the compact that results from the process of particle metallurgy is also free from alloy segregation.

Find Out More About the Process

First developed in 1970, the process of particle metallurgy used to make this type of steel has been in use for nearly 50 years. Learn more about the particle metallurgy processing used at Griggs Steel by contacting us today.