ASP 2023 steel is a type of high speed steel used for a variety of tool applications. It is known by several other names including PM23, S790 and AISI M3-2. It is a high-quality steel that offers excellent dimensional stability, machinability and grindability.
PM23 Steel – An ASP 2023 Equivalent
Like other PM-series tool steels, PM 23 steel is made using powder metallurgy, meaning the steel is made from metal powder. This helps to create more consistent physical characteristics throughout the steel. It also helps enhance many positive features such as toughness and dimensional stability.
This ASP 2023 equivalent is noted for its abrasive wear resistance and high compressive strength. These qualities and others make it suitable for cold work applications.
Uses for ASP 2030/PM23
There are numerous situations in which this steel is a good choice. Like all high-speed steels, it is intended to be used on tools, especially those that move quickly and deal with a lot of heat. It is superior to more conventional carbon steel and similar metals in these applications. The following are a few examples of popular applications for PM23 steel:
- Stamping tools
- Precision cutting tools
- Machining tools
- Broaching tools
- Rotary knives
- Woodworking tools
- Gear shaper cutters
- Circular saw segments
- Metal saws
- Screw dies
- Cold extrusion punches
- Deep drawing dies
- Plastic molds with high wear resistance
Physical and Chemical Properties of ASP 2023/PM23
This ASP 2023 equivalent steel has a density of 0.287 pounds-per-cubic-inch (8256 kilograms-per-cubic-meter). It has a modulus of elasticity of 33×106 PSI (230 GPa). It is composed of 1.28% carbon, 4& chromium, 6.4% tungsten, 5% molybdenum and 3.1% vanadium.
These qualities make it a very balanced and flexible steel. Relative to other HSS, it has very high toughness (second only to PM M4 in the Griggs Steel catalog) and the highest ease of grinding of equivalent steels in our catalog. Its wear resistance and hardness are closer to the average for HSS but still more than acceptable for many applications. It also has relatively high machinability for a tool steel. This combination of characteristics makes PM23 steel an excellent choice for many circumstances.
Thermal Treatments for ASP 2023/PM23 Steel
As with all high-speed steels, ASP 2023 steel should be properly thermally treated before use. These are the treatment directions:
- Preheating: During this stage, heat the steel to 840 to 940°F (450 to 500°C). Then, heat to 1560-1650°F (850-900°C).
- Austenizing: Right after preheating, heat rapidly to between 1920 and 2160°F (1050-1180°C) depending on desired hardness. This typically requires a second furnace. Protect tool against decarburization and oxidation.
- Quenching: Use a vacuum furnace with high-speed gas at two to five bar. Use a martempering bath or fluidized bed at around 1020°F (550°C). Quench until the tool reaches around 120°F (50°C).
- Tempering: Tempering should immediately follow quenching. For cold work applications, temper at 1040°F (560°C). Temper three times in one hour at full temperature. Cool to room temperature between tempers.
- Annealing: Following hot working and before re-hardening, perform annealing. ASP 2023 steel should be heated at a maximum rate of 400°F (222°C) to 1600°F (871°C). Hold that temperature for an hour per inch of thickness and at least two hours. Slowly cool using the furnace at a rate of 30°F (17°C) per hour to 1000°F (538°C). Continue cooling to ambient temperature using the furnace of ambient air.
PM23 Steel Available at Griggs Steel
Griggs Steel sells ASP 2023 steel under the name PM23. It is available in powder metal sheets and blocks. We are happy to help you find the right steel products for your needs.